Toxins -  Background Information

  1. UPDATE:
    PBDEs now to be fully phased-out in Canada by the end of 2013 - includes deca PBDEs

  2. BC Cetacean Sightings Network’s summary on toxins in marine mammals

  3. Reducing toxins in the environment

  4. Toxic Nation” information on all from brominated fire retardants to bisphenol A .

  5. Which plastics are safer ?(Although we should be reducing use of all plastics.)

  6. Information on the plastics of the North Pacific Gyre

  7. Information on brominated fire retardants (PBDEs), the new Persistent Organic Pollutant. 

  8. Dr. Peter Ross' "Fireproof Killer Whales" which focuses on the toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistence of brominated fire retardants (scientific paper)

  9. Scientific paper on the current state of knowledge on PBDEs: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Marine Ecosystems of the American Continents: Foresight from Current Knowledge Susan D. Shaw1 and Kurunthachalam Kannan2

  10. Short video from Ocean Futures Society on the need to ban PBDEs (links to the latest Cousteau special on killer whales and toxins “Call of the Killer Whale”)

  11. Suzuki Foundation's response to Environment Canada's PBDE management proposal; includes a report by Dr. Peter Ross and updates on what other countries are doing with regard to PBDEs Fireproof Whales and Contaminated Mother’s Milk: The Inadequacy of Canada’s Proposed PBDE Regulations  

  12. Europe bans all use of PBDEs as of Feb 2008 .  Some American states have followed suit.

  13. Environment Canada's proposed risk management strategy for PBDEs; includes an overview of what other nations' initiatives against PBDEs

  14. From the European Health Alliance

  15. Oceana’s PBDE fact sheet 

  16. From the Environmental Working Group (USA ) – extensive report on toxins in the environment  

  17. From Our Stolen Future 

  18. Answers to frequently asked questions about PBDEs 

  19. (April 3rd, 2007) Washington is the first American state to ban all forms of brominated fire retardants!  

  20. Cetacean Sightings Network - overview of impacts of toxins on cetaceans.

  21. Antibacterial agent “triclosan” found in bottlenosed dolphins.


  1. Dr. Peter Ross’ initial research on bioaccumulation in killer whales  (scientific paper)

  2. History of the use of PCBs

  3. Background on the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants aimed at banning the "Dirty Dozen" (12 historical bioaccumulative chemicals - May 17th 2004 bulletin).  

  4. Information on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from the JapanOffspring Fund.  Includes a presentation from Jackie Hildering 

  5. Oceana’s report on POPs in marine life 

  6. David Suzuki Foundation report revealing the woeful inadequacy of Canada's pesticide regulations