See bottom of page for inventory of cetacean strandings related to the use of naval low/mid frequency sonar.

  1. Update on the use of low to mid frequency sonar in Puget Sound

  2. November 13th, 2008, latest court ruling regarding US Navy wanting to be able to use 70% of the world’s oceans for mid-frequency sonar testing. History of court decisions.

  3.   Cetacean Sightings Network

  4.     National Resource Defense Council's press release on US court decision re. the use of military sonar. Backgrounder. 

  5.     Seaflow

  6.     USA Humane Society's Sonar Page

  7.     Potential impact of sound on cetacean hearing - see lesson 4 in lesson plan  by Anna Hall and Jackie Hildering

  8.     Center for Whale Research's information on strandings linked to sonar

  9.     NRDC petition to stop navy’s use of military sonar

Importance of sounds to marine mammals

Effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal

Hearing in cetaceans

Lesson plan on the potential impacts of sound on marine mammals

Whales in Crisis” - 1 hr long National Geographic movie; includes the possible impacts of military sonar on cetaceans (interviews with Ken Balcomb when military sonar used in Puget Sound in 2003).

Examples of strandings in which military sonar is suspected to have a role as the strandings occurred in association with naval training exercises (list compiled by J. Hildering):

1.In 1996, a mass stranding of beaked whales in the Mediterranean Sea (Source: Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales?)

2.In May 2000, 17 species of cetacean stranded in the Bahamas (Source:  Balcomb, K.  2001.  A Mass Stranding of Beaked Whales in the Bahamas).

3.In September 2002, 14 beaked whales stranded in the Canary Islands (Source: Martel, V.M. 2002.  Summary of the report on the atypical mass stranding of beaked whales in the Canary Islands in September 2002 during naval exercises). 2008 update

4.From May 2nd to June 2nd 2003, multiple harbour porpoise were found stranded in Puget Sound, Washington (Source: American Cetacean Society.  Summary of the Preliminary Report on the investigation of harbour porpoise stranded in Washington around May 2003).

  1. 5.On January 15th and 16th 2005, 36 cetaceans of 3 different species stranded in North Carolina (Source:  NOAA report. Multi-species Unusual Mortality Event in North Carolina).

  2. 6.Jan 2006 - North Carolina’s Cape Hatteras National Seashore - 15 pilot whales—6 of them pregnant—were dead. Seven more had to be euthanized by veterinarians. During the next two days, a newborn minke whale and two dwarf sperm whales also died in one of the largest beaching events ever documented along this coastline.

  3. 7.April 2008  - 6 beaked whales strand in Herbrides, UK.

  4. 8.June 2008 - dolphins strand on Cornish coastline (Cornwall, UK).